Івано-Франківський національний технічний університет нафти і газу 13 страница  

Івано-Франківський національний технічний університет нафти і газу 13 страница

overlap

перекривати

packer

пакер (ущільнювач)

permeability

проникніть

permeable

проникний

piston

поршень

plug up

закупорювати

plugging material

тампонуючий матеріал

plunger-type pump

плунжерна помпа

preclude

усувати, запобігати

pressure differential

перепад тиску

presume

припускати

prompt

швидкі контрзаходи

countermeasures

pull

тягнути

quebracho

квебрахо (хімічний реагент)

ream

розширювати

reamer

розширювач

reaming

розширення стовбура, свердловини

redrilling

иеребурювання

reel up

змотувати

re-establish

відновлювати

regain

відновлювати

reinforcing plugs

укріплюючий матеріал (пробки)

reject

відхиляти, бракувати

reliability

надійність

remedial measures

заходи із відновлення (циркуляції)

remedy

засіб

rend

розколювати

residual

залишковий

resilient

еластичний, пружний

restoration

відновлення

round trip

опускання-піднімання інструменту

rupture

розрив

score

десятки

scour

розмивати

scrape off

зіскребти

seal off

ізолювати, герметично заробляти

sediment

осад

settle

осідати, опускатись на дно

sheath

оболонка, кірка

showing

поява, проявлення

sidetrack

вихід вбік новим стовбуром, обхід

single-cone roller bit

одношарошкове долото

sinking of the well

поглиблення свердловини

sludge trap

шламоулвлювач

slurry

рідкий цемент

spud

розходжувати (труби)

squeeze

стискати, впихати, протискувати

stabilizer

стабілізатор

stand idle

простоювати

stand pipe

груба-стояк

stick

застрявати,зависати

sticking

залипання, застрявання, прихват

suction effect

всмоктуючий ефект

surfactant

поверхнево активна речовина

surpass

переважати

suspend

підвішувати, утримувати

swabbing

поршневий

swell

розбухати

thermorésistant

термостійкий

threaded pipe joint

різьбове з'єднання труб

tight

щільний, тугий

tight hole

звуження стовбура свердловини

tight pull

затягування


tightening tool joint traverse ultimate

union

velocity

viscidity

viscosity

waiting technique

weight

weighted mud fluid yield point

abundant adjust advance apparently apt to

area around area in array augment avert

back of the bed

biphasic

bulk

bulking up case off casing shoe clog

competent rock натяг, затягування, ущільнення

з'єднання, бурильний замок

розбурювати, пересікати

основний, критичний, граничний,

максимальний

штуцер ( патрубок )

швидкість

в'язкість

в'язкість

техніка вичікування навантаження, вага промивальна рідина, що обважнює межа текучості

PART 6

значний

регулювати

проходка

очевидно, вірогідно

підходити

привибійна

вибійна

розташувати



збільшувати

усувати, запобігати

крівля пласта

двофазний

об'єм, величина

збільшення

кріпити ( стовбур)

башмак колони обсадних труб

забруднюватись, забиватись

міцна, тверда порода
completion

connate

contaminate

contingent

cross-section

deflect

deteriorate

differential

diminish

drastically

emergence

establish

expenditure

exuberantly

feed

fine-dispersed

fissure

fit out

formation energy

fonnation pressure

foul

futile

gas cap

gas holder

grave

homogeneous hydraulic fracturing impair impervious induce

induction of oil inflow освоєння

що виникає одночасно

забруднювати

пропорційний

поперечний переріз

скривлювати

погіршувати

перепад (тиску)

зменшуватись

радикально, значно

поява

встановлювати витрачання., витрати надмірно живити

тон кодислерсн ий

тріщина

обладнувати

енергії! пласта

пластовий тиск

засмічувати

марний

газова шапка

газосховище

важки й

однорідний

гідравлічний розрив

погіршення

непроникний

викликати

впуск, всмоктування нафти притік


inferior

нижчий, гірший

influx

притік

inrush

прорив

instantaneously

моментально, негайно

mill

фрезерувати

opening-up

підготовка; розкриття ( нового горизонту)

opportune

доцільно

overlap

перекривати

packer

пакер

pay area

продукти вний об'єкт

permeability

проникність

pervious

проникний

pierce

пробивати, просвердлювати

potent

могутній

precipitation

осаджування, осідання, утворення осаду

producing well

експлуатаційна, продукти вна свердловина

production casing

експлуатаційна обсадна колона

quantify

визначати кількість

reduction

скорочення

reservoir

пласт

reservoir bed

продуктивний пласт

resort

застосовувати, вдаватись до

saturate

насичувати

saturation

насиченість

scores

десятки

secure

забезпечення

side hole

бічна свердловина

slit

щілина

slurry

цементний розчин, цементне тісто

streak

пласт, прошарок

subject

піддавати д ії


surfactant

suspend

suspend

swelling

tap

testing unjustifiable uphole velocity utilization

well completion time yield поверхнево-активна речовина

затримати, законсервувати

підвішувати

набухання; розбухання

ловити, розкривати

випробування

неоправданий

висхідна швидкість

використання

тривалість освоєння свер/дловини дебіт, продуктивність, видобуток


INDEX


abnormality 50, 66,77 abrasiveness 24 absorption 119, 122 additive 58, 60 adhesiveness 136 adjustment 47 adsoption 22 advance 149, 154 aeration 121 agent 60 aleurolite 26 alkali 55

alloy 24,39,94,98 angle 154 anisotropy 11 argillaceous 147 argillite 15 arrangement 35 array 40 attachment 38

auxiliary equipment 96, 100, 110

azimuth 154 ball bearing 91 balling 135 barge 110 barrel 18 bearing 47 bishofite 20

bit 33,40,52,87, 88,91, 92,96,98

blind drilling 118

blowout 105, 116, 117, 125, 127 blowout 105, 116, 117, 125, 127 bore hole 105 bort 39

bottom drive engine 47, 60

bottom hole 46, 77, 85

boundary 17

brake 97

break 125, 136

breakdown 125, 133

breaker 60, 94

brine 47

bucket 88

buoyancy force 79

cable 111

cable tool, 87

calcite 10

caoutchouc 60

capability 22

camallite 20

casing 102, 105, 154

casing string 34, 85, 86, 102

catcher 108 caustic soda 57, 63 cavern 119

caving-in 119, 131, 135 cellulose 57 cement 13, 103 cementation 145 cementing 102

central izer 105 chamfer 41 check valve 126 chemical reaction 23 chemogenic rock 15 chilled steel 25 chip 33, 35 choke 106

Christmas Tree 86, 105 chromâtes 58 circulation 50, 125, 137 circulation loss 89, 116, 117 clastic rock 26 clay 15,55 clutch 92

coagulation 58, 62,63 coarse-grained rock 18 cohesion 7, 9, 132 coil 97

combustion 98 composition 15 compressibility 17 compression 19 condition 24 consideration 20 consumption 66, 73, 79, 90 contact site 26 contamination 79, 148 contraction 17 convergence 19 cooling 40 core 49 core 49

core barrel 50

core drilling 33, 34, 87, 93

core head 94

corrosion 47,80, 98, 102

crack 39

creep 13,15

crew 50

crownblock 96, 100 crude oil 78, 144 crumbling 119, 131, 135 crush 35

crust 47, 50,51,53 current 80 curve 13

cutting 88, 89, 92, 117, 122 cutting-abrasive type 33 debris 128 defect 19,22 deflection 132, 154 deformation 12,15,17 degree 18

density 7,53, 62, 67, 70, 75 deplection 137 deposit 9, 54, 69, 153 depth 8,10,17

derrick 88,96, 97, 100, 101, 108 device 93

diamond-carrying head 38 diamond-set bit 37,40, 42 diesel fuel 69

directional drilling 108, 109 dispersion 57, 69, 70, 73, 133 displacement 19, 36 dolomite 18 drag bit 46, 94 drainage 154

draw works 88, 96, 97, 100, 140

drill collar 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 98,

116, 130, 137,

drill column 130

drill pipe 90, 102

drill string 89, 90, 97, 108

drilling crew 110

drilling equipment 24

drilling fluid 40, 46, 48, 51, 52,

67,73,77, 105

drilling string 50, 60, 77, 98,

119,146

drilling well 8

drillstem 92, 140

drum 100

earth 19

edge 26,41

efficiency 24

efflux 131

elastic limit 15

elasticity 12,13

electrodrilling 87, 91, 92, 140

elongated wing 41

emergence 147

emulsifier 73, 74

emulsion 48,73, 75

engine 87, 98

enhancement 19 equipment 88, 89, 90 expansion 19 exploratory well 86 explosion drilling 87, 93 exposure 39 extraneous object 40 fabrication 39

failure 116, 133 fatigue 98, 133 feldspar 10 film 21 filter 152, 155

filter cake 60,74, 79, 105, 136

filtrate 47, 74, 80,145, 153

filtration 50, 139 fine-grained rock 18 fishing 90,91, 107 fissure 47 fitting 86

flexodrilling 87, 92

fluctuation 133

fluid 9,20,35,88,90

flushing 46, 78, 79, 131, 145

flushing hole 35, 39, 40, 41, 42

foam 48, 60, 78

foliation 126

footage 48

force 19

forge 35

fracture 22,47,53,119,120


framework 21 freezing 129 freezing point 47 friability 9

friction 24,47, 50, 60, 77

friction drag 60

froth 60

furrowing 136

futile 144

gap 40

garments 58

gas cap 154

gas holder 153

gauge 42, 106

gear 91, 92

gliding 19

globule 73

goggles 60

grain 13,19

granite 10,15

gravity 89

grind 42

groove 109

growth 21

guide plug 103

gusher 103

gypsum 25

gypsum-base mud 64

halite 20

hammer 107

handling 118

hanger 105 hazard 73, 78, 90 headpiece 41 healing 19 helical 37

hoisting 90, 124, 127, 135 hook 96, 101 horse power 89, 98 hose 92, 103 humidification 50, 52 humidify 133 hydraulic drive 90 hydraulic jack 110 hydraulic power 90 hydrolic pressure 21 hysteresis 13 idle rotation 89 infiltration 21

inflow 119, 124, 127, 144, 145

influence 22

influx 125, 144, 145, 150

inhibitor 52, 80

intensity 18

intensive wear 26

intersect 36

jamming 107

jet 24

jet bit 89

joint 86, 89,91

junk basket 108

kelly 94, 100

kelly joint 97, 99

kelly valve 117 kerf 48 key hole 86 key seating 130 knuckle joint 109

lamination 13 lattice 14,19,53 layer 22, 33 lime 58

lime-base mud 64 limestone 10 liquid 50 load 12,15 lubricant 26 lubricate 60

magnitude 8, 9,11, 21, 25

marble 18

mass 8,9

massif 20

mast 97

mastic limit 15 matrix 39, 40 measure 22 measurement 24, 75 medium-grained rock 18 metal coat 139 method 24 micro fracture 22, 146 mill 154 mining 20 modulus 12 molecular force 22

mother rock 93 movement 19 mud 89,91

mud fluid 52, 54., 55, 145, 148, 150

mud pump 96, 98 narrowing 131, 132 nozzle 49, 89, 93 offshore drilling 110, 111 oil string 85

oil-base drilling fluid 69 oil-base mud 70 opening-up 152 overflow 125 overlap 153 overshot 107 packer 122, 124, 152 packing 105 paraffin 147

pay area 144 '

pay bed 148, 153 * '

pellet 54

penetration 47, 90, 93, 146 peptization 57, 62, 63 percussion 87 percussion drilling 88 perforating 106, 145 perforator 106 peripheral part 38 periphery 34, 41 permafrost 47, 77 permeability 17, 77, 124, 146, 152

phosphates 60 piercing 54, 63, 69 pipe 80, 88, 98 pipe string 120, 124, 135 piston 98 pit 89 plane 19 plasticity 15, 19 platform 110, 111 plug 104, 117 pneumatic vibrator 93 Poisson's ratio 12,14,20 pollution 149, 152, 153 pore 9

porosity 8,10, 17 porous rock 17 powderlike 39 power 89, 90, 91 precipitation 46, 147 pressure 13,50 pressure differential 146, 149 preventor 105, 117 prime mover 96 property 16,17,21,33 pulp 78

pump 47, 78,88, 89, 90,91, 103, 140

quartz 8,9 quebracho 116 radial 37

radially-stepped 37 radius 38

ram 105

rate 22

ratio 8,11,25

reagent 57

ream 129

reamer 137

Rebinder's effect 22

recovery 150, 155

reduction 17, 40

reference ring 24

replacement 24

reservoir 70, 145, 146, 152' 153

resin 147

resistance 20, 51, 75, 120, 132

resonance 75

rig 88, 94, 97, 110, 111

rig wear 90

rigidity 51, 69

rock 7,9,10,42

rock-breaking tool 24

rod 88

roller 34

roller cutter bit 40, 94 rope 88

rotary drilling 46, 50, 87, 88, 89, 90, 118 rotary hose 96

rotary table 96, 97 rotaty motion 35 round trip 92, 120 route 25 row 41, 42

rubber support 91 sample 24 sandstone 10,13, 146 saturation 22, 147, 152 scavenge 41 •

schist 15 schistosity 11,13 scope 22 scratcher 105 seal off 86, 125 sedimentary rock 15 selicate 8

shaft 46, 50, 89,91,94 98

shale 15

shape 15,26

sharp 40

shifting 19

shoe 103

showing 119

sinter 38

sliding speed 25

slips 100, 107

slit 154

sludge catcher 40

slurry 103, 119, 122, 146. 153

slush pump 92

soda ash 60

solar oil 60

solid phase 57, 75

solid rock 15

soluble glass 60 spear 107

speed 24, 91

spindel 91, 92, 94,

spindle 47

spring 105

stand idle 126

starch 55, 64

steel 24

stem 89, 90, 91

step-wise 33

sticking 119, 135

stop-ring 103

strain 13

strata 20, 62, 63

stream 40

strength 9,10

stress 15

subsructure 96, 97

superdeep drilling 140

support 97, 109

suppressor 60

surface 11,17

surface energy 22

surfactant 22. 60, 69, 70, 73,

77,79,136,150

suspension 54, 55

swabbing 116, 129

swell 132, 147

swivel 51, 92, 96, 100, 101

tank 89

tap 107, 154

tender 110 tension 12

texture 13

thermal drilling 87, 93

thinner 62, 63

thread 35, 38, 107

three-dimensional compression

tightening 135 tip 41

tool 35, 60 tool joint 90, 98 tooth 48

torque 60, 77, 91

trap 47

treatment 47

triaxial compression 17

truck 96, 103

tube 92

turbine drilling 90, 91 turbobit 94

turbodrilling 87, 90, 140

twist-off 90, 91, 107

unit 25

utilization 150

valve 86, 88, 103, 106

velocity 40, 146

vibrational drilling 87, 93

viscidity 58, 62, 63

viscosity 21, 50, 51, 56, 57, 63,

6, 70

void 8,21 volume 8,9,19,78 volumetric 17 waiting technique 118 water-base drilling fluid 69 wear-resistant 39 wedge 109 wedge bit 88 weight 20

weighting material 67 weld 35,41 welded joint 104 well 80

well completion 14, 149 well head 85, 125 well mouth 121 wettability 22, 60 whipstock 109 wild cat 86 wing 41, 42 wrench 107 yield point 18,20,22 zenith 154


REFERENCES

1. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.- http://en .wikipedia.org/.

2. Operationally relevant training.-Aberdeen Drilling Schools &

Well Control Training Center, 2007.- 88p.

3. Tubing rotation system proves successful in extending well life. March 2006. Vol. 227 No. 3. -

http.V/worldoil .com/magazine/magazinedetail.asp

4. Tapered coiled tubing reaches extreme depths. February 2005. Vol. 226 No. 2. -

http://www.worldoil.com/magazine/magazine dctail.asp

5. How to analyze / handle tubular corrosion problems. April 2002. Vol. 223 No. 4. -

http://www.compositecatalog.com/iTiagazirte/magazine detail.asp

6. Oil & Gas Journal Online - http://4vww.ogj .com/

7. Граматика сучасної англійської мови. Довідник /Верба Л .Г., Верба Г.В. Київ, 1997. 352 с.

8. Бизнес-курс английского язика. Словарь-справочник /Богацкий И.С. - Киев: Логос, 1997. - 352 с.

9. Ділова англійська мова. Business English /Козлова М.О., Памірська Л.Ю., Рабо щук А.В., Юрківська Л.Й, Житомир: 1ІП. „Рута”, 2003. - 520 с.

10. Англійська мова. Методичний посібник для вчителів /Ельбрехт О.М. - Харьков: Ранок, 2003. - 224 с.

11. Англійська мова. План-конспект уроків /Поварська Т.В. - Харків: Ранок, 2001. - 168 с.

12. English Project /Tom Autghinsori: Oxford University Press, 1998.

- 120 p.

13. Headway /John and Liz Soars:: Oxford University Press, 1995. -

120 p.

14. Англо-русский политехни ческий словарь /Под ред.Чернухина А.Е. - Москва: Русский язык, 1996. 647 с.

15. Business Grammar Builorer /Emerson Paul. - Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002. - 272 p.

16. The Oxford Desk Dictionary and Thesaurus. American edition. Berkly Books. New York, 1997. - 972 p.

17. Русско-англо-немецко-французский словарь по


вычислительной технике /Масловский Е.К., Зайчик Б.И., Скороход Н.С. - Москва: Русский язык, 1999. - 400 с.


SUPPLEMENT Text 1 Mud Fluids

Thanks to unsaturated oxygen valences along the faces and at the apices of the crystal lattice the elementary (unit) scales can join one another lengthwise the crystallographic axis C, and thus form a multilayered aggregate. Since the bonds between the scales are weak, such an aggregate, when agitated in a liquid, i s apt to split easily into unit scales along the stratification planes. The outer layers of the pyrophyllite seales are equipotential and the scale itself is, therefore, electrically neutral, except for the si tes of the crystal lattice rupture, where there may exist positive and negative charges.

The minerals of the moritmorillinite group differ from pyrophyllite in that the composition of their crystal lattice includes atoms of magnesium, iron, chromium and other elements. These atoms replace, as it were, some atoms of aluminium and silicon, the substitution, as a rule, being equivalent. Some of the trivalent aluminium atoms are replaced unequally, with bivalent magnesium or iron atoms, for example, and some tetravalent silicon atoms with tri valent atoms of aluminium or other elements. With such an unequal substitution, the scale acquires excess negative charges. These charges are balanced by single- or poly-valent cations (of sodium, potassium, calcium, etc.) which, however, do not make part of the crystal lattice, and, being disposed at the outer surface of the silicate layers, are, nevertheless, combined with it by the force of electric interaction. , ,

Should a pellet of montmorillinite be put in an aqueous solution containing, for example, cations of calcium, the substitution reaction between calcium and the atoms making part of the crystal lattice is impossible. But the substitution reaction is possible between calcium and the cations lying at the outer surface of the silicate layers and offseting excess charges of the clayey particle. Such cations are, therefore, called exchange cations, and they compose an exchange capacity of argillaceous minerals and clays. The exchange capacity is commonly characterized by milligram-equivalents of cations adsorbed by the surface of 100 g of an air-dry argillaceous mineral or clay.

The presence of exchange ions makes an argillaceous mineral active, preconditions many of its important properties, such as the ability to participate in exchange reactions, to undergo ionization, hydration, etc.

Yet another representative of triple-layer argillaceous minerals are hydromicas. In addition to aluminium and silicon atoms, into composition of their crystal lattice enter atoms of iron and magnesium. Tri valent aluminium atoms substitute non- equivalently some of the tetravalent silicon atoms; an excess negative charge that develops at this juncture is balanced by cations of both potassium and other elements. The potassium cations lie on the surface of the crystal lattice and are firmly bound with it. Non­equivalent substitution of atoms in the crystal lattice accounts for the exchange capacity of hydromicas. As concerns their exchange capacity, some hydromicas stand close to the minerals of the montmorillinite group, while others come nearer to the minerals of the kaolinite group. Hydromicas are characterized by a high degree of dispersion.

A typical representative of double-layer minerals is kaolinite. Its unit scale is made up of one silicate and one aluminate layer. A non-equivalent substitution of aluminium or silicon atoms is nearly impossible. Hence, the kaolinite scales are either neutral or have a very insignificant charge, the exchange capacity of such a mineral being extremely small. Between neighbouring scales along crystallographic axis C there exists a strong hydrogen bond of the OH-O type. If a kaolinite pellet be immersed in water then on stirring unlike montmorillinite, it does not split up into unit scales.

To the group of minerals with the chain structure belongs palygorskite. This is an aqueous magnesium alumosilicate. The unit cell of palygorskite consists of twin silico-oxygen chains. The adjacent silicon-oxygen (silicic) tetrahedrons have their apices turned into opposite directions, which makes the chain look like a ribbed blanket. Two adjoining chains are disposed in such way that the apices of the successive layers or blankets face each other, whereas the layers themselves are linked together through the intermediary of alumoxigen octahedrons. In these octahedrons the magnesium and iron atoms serve as substitutes for some of


the aluminium atoms. Because of not quite an equivalent substitution, the palygorskite particles have an excess negative charge The exchange capacities of argillaceous minerals differ quite significantly and lie within the range (in mg-equiv/100 g) for:

Montmorillinite.................................... 80-150

Polygorskite .......................................... 20-30

Hydromicas ........................................... 10-40

Kaolinite ................................................ 3-15

In nature argillaceous minerals occur rarely. They usually enter the composition of rocks known as clays. The natural clay is composed of a mixture of several argillaceous minerals and nonargillaceous admixtures, such as, for example, quartz, colloidal silica and others. Clays in whose composition the major part play montmorillinites are called bentonites. When, in addition to montmorillinites, clay contains a significant proportion of hydromicas or kaolinites, it is termed subbentonite. Clays in which kaolinites prevail are called kaolin clays.

Apart from colloidal fractions the natural clay carries large particles which, obviously, affect the density of the clay suspension, but are incapable of imparting to it a sedimentation stability. For this reason, the consumption of different varieties of clay used for preparation of 1 m3 of a stable mud fluid may vary within a fairly wide range. If, for instance, there must be less than 100 kg of a high- quality sodium bentonite per m3, the amount of low colloidal clay will have to exceed 800 kg.

In choosing the variety of clay for preparation of a mud fluid of essential importance is mineralization (salt content) of water of mixing and the composition of rocks to be drilled out. If there is no risk of any substantial mineralization of the mud fluid under the effect of the drilled-out rock fragments, formation brines and gases that get into it in the course of drilling, the best source of the colloidal fraction Will then be bentonite. Because of a low-strcngth oxygen bonds between the montmorillinite scales and a high degree of dispersion the bentonite is apt to break into unit scales in fresh water, to swell and combine physically a large amount of water. Especially prone to an intensive bulking up are sodium bentonites; a pellet of such a clay

when breaking up in fresh water can increase in volume by as much as 8 to 14 times. Much less susceptible to swelling are calcic and magnesia bentonites. With diminishing proportion of montmorillinite in the clay the extent of its swelling decreases and a much greater amount of the clayey material is needed to prepare a stable suspension.

In fresh water there takes; place a surficial dissociation of bentonite, viz. the adsorbed cations of Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and other elements break away from the surface of the particles and the latter becomes negatively charged. The majority of these cations are held near the surface of the clay particle by the adsorption forces and the force of the electr c field around the particle at a distance of one- two molecules, forming, as it were, a plane capacitor with two plates (so-called double Helmholtz electric layer), on one of which a negative charge of the clay particle is concentrated and on the other the positive charge of counterions. A part of cations, however, move away under the effect of thermal motion over a greater distance from the particle and form a diffusive portion of the double electric layer, or the diffusion layer of Guit. Between the ions of the Helmholtz layer and the diffusion layer a continuous equilibrium exchange goes on. Within the limits of the Helmholtz layer is in evidence a steep drop of the electric potential, whereas in the diffusion layer the potential declines more smoothly.

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